Appendix: List of background papers

Commentary on Te Tai Waiora: Wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand.

We list and briefly describe the background papers that the Treasury prepared to support Te Tai Waiora.39

Social cohesion in New Zealand

This paper discusses the evidence base about social cohesion in New Zealand. It introduces relevant concepts and reviews social cohesion indicators for New Zealand (including those used in the Living Standards Framework).

Wellbeing during the first year of COVID-19: An analysis of the wellbeing supplement to the New Zealand household labour force survey

This paper focuses on how well-being in New Zealand changed in the immediate, short term, and medium term, using survey data from the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic until March 2021. It tracks outcomes for all New Zealanders, as well as key groups particularly impacted by the pandemic.

Our wellbeing throughout the COVID-19 pandemic

This paper explores recent data to describe observed trends in New Zealanders' well-being from Covid-19's arrival in New Zealand in early 2020 to the first quarter of 2022, as well as emerging observable evidence or potential leading indicators of longer-term impacts on New Zealanders' well-being.

Wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand: A population segmentation analysis

This paper seeks to understand the factors that are related to differences in subjective well-being in the New Zealand population aged 15 years and above, using data from the General Social Survey.

Wellbeing and natural capital: Understanding the sustainability and risks

This paper investigates evidence on how sustainable the contribution of New Zealand's natural environment is to the well-being of its people.

New Zealand's wellbeing: Is it sustainable and what are the risks?

This paper focuses on three questions: What do we know about whether New Zealand's overall wealth is increasing, declining, or staying the same? What major risks does New Zealand face that could undermine future well-being? What is the best way to build resilience to limit the impact of the risks on the sustainability of future well-being?

Trends in wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand: 2000-2020

This paper focuses on three questions: Where are we as a country positioned on average in comparison to other countries in the various domains of well-being? Has our situation improved, worsened, or stayed stable over time? Are there any notable differences in the distribution of well-being throughout various groups in the population?

Trends in Māori wellbeing

This paper is a first attempt at applying He Ara Waiora to inform discussion about impacts on Māori well-being. It includes a high-level summary of emerging trends, including Māori gaining qualifications at faster rates than other groups and the Māori economy growing at a faster rate than the wider economy. However, challenges persist, specifically with income, material hardship, health, and housing.

The distribution of advantage in Aotearoa New Zealand

This paper follows an earlier background paper ("Trends in wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand, 2000-2020"). That paper highlighted the complex distribution of well-being in this country. This paper explores these complexities, with a detailed examination of the distribution of being advantaged and disadvantaged in New Zealand throughout multiple dimensions.

Equality, equity and distributive justice

This paper explores the meaning of equality, other common values, and theories of distributive justice. Among other things, it highlights the factors that each theory considers relevant for equity distribution so that the reader can understand some of the key differences.

An update to estimates of human capital in New Zealand

This paper uses census data from 1986 to 2018 to update the estimated value of human capital in New Zealand. It highlights key findings about the value of human capital in New Zealand. The paper discusses the methodology used, the estimated value of human capital in New Zealand, and factors that underpin these results, as well as some subgroup analysis (including disaggregated numbers for Māori and non-Māori and by gender).

Pacific peoples' wellbeing

This paper looks at the well-being of Pacific peoples in New Zealand across a range of well-being areas. It includes an overview of relevant Pacific worldviews, community structures, and aspirations of Pacific peoples. In particular, it highlights the relationship between cultural identity and well-being for Pacific peoples and the strength and resilience of family and community relationships in Pacific communities.

39: For the background papers, see the Treasury (2022), Te Tai Waiora: Wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand 2022, at