Principles for effectively co-governing natural resources.

Most of the Māori words used in this report are in common use in New Zealand. We provide this glossary for the benefit of our overseas readers.

Hapū – Kinship group – section of a large kinship group and the primary political unit in traditional Māori society. A number of related hapū usually shared adjacent territories forming a looser tribal federation (iwi).

Hui – Gathering, meeting, assembly, seminar, conference.

Iwi – Extended kinship group, tribe – often refers to a large group of people descended from a common ancestor and associated with a distinct territory.

Kaitiaki – Guardian, steward.

Kaitiakitanga – Guardianship, stewardship.

Karakia – To recite ritual chants, say grace, recite a prayer.

Kaumātua – Elder, elderly man, elderly woman, a person of status.

Koha – Gift, present, offering, donation, contribution.

Koura – Freshwater and salt-water species of crayfish.

Mahinga kai – Garden, cultivation, food-gathering place.

Mana – Prestige, authority, control, power, influence, status.

Mana whenua – Authority over land or territory – also refers to the people who exercise that authority.

Manaakitanga – Hospitality, kindness, generosity, support – showing respect and care for others.

Marae – The open area in front of the wharenui (meeting house) where formal greetings and discussions take place. Often also used to include all the buildings around the marae.

Maunga – Mountain, mount, peak.

Mauri – Life principle, vital essence – the essential quality and vitality of a being or entity. Also used for a physical object, individual, ecosystem, or social group in which this essence is located.

Pākehā – English, foreign, European. Used to describe a New Zealander of European descent.

Rangatiratanga – Chieftainship, right to exercise authority, chiefly autonomy, chiefly authority, ownership, leadership of a social group.

Raupatu – Conquest, confiscation.

Rōpū – Group, party of people, company, organisation.

Rūnanga – Tribal council.

Tangata whenua – Local people, people of the land.

Taonga – Treasure, anything prized.

Tapu – Sacred, prohibited, restricted, set apart, forbidden.

Tikanga – Custom, way, values, and practices.

Waka – Canoe.

Whānau – Family group.